Integrated Pest Management

                                                   “Pest Management”

 

Introduction

Organic cultivating depends on strategies that combine scientific information of the environment and advanced innovation with conventional cultivating hones based on naturally occurring organic processes. It is a cultivating system that maintains the wellbeing of soils, environments, and individuals. The foremost strategies of natural cultivating incorporate crop rotation, green fertilizer and compost, mechanical cultivation, and natural bug control.

Different Practices to Manage Pests

Agriculturists are confronted with a heap of production challenges where the foremost common issues are pests, which incorporate creepy crawlies, maladies, and weeds. They coordinated cultural, biological, mechanical, physical, and chemical practices to oversee pests.

1)      Cultural practices

It relies on a procedure to create the crop or environment unsatisfactory to bugs by interfering with their oviposition inclinations, host plant discrimination, or area by both grown-ups and immatures. Those can be accomplished with practices such as crop segregation, blended trimming, and crop rotation. The timing of sowing and planting can be utilized to permit youthful plants to set up to a tolerant stage before an attack happens and to diminish the susceptible period of attack. Administration of trap and nursery crops and encompassing environment is additionally included to divert creepy-crawly attack away from the crop.

2)      Mechanical and physical control

It incorporates culturing, mowing, cutting, mulching, and natural soil coverage and boundaries. Tillage turning the soil between crops to join crop residues and soil alterations. It moreover crushes weeds and disturbs the bug life cycle.

3)      Biological control

Biological control in natural plant protection is a strategy of controlling creepy crawly bugs and illnesses utilizing other life forms that depend on predation, parasitism, and herbivory, or a few other normal mechanisms with dynamic farmer’s management interaction. Natural foes of creepy crawly bugs, known as organic control operators, are predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. For weeds organic control, agents are seed predators, herbivores, and plant pathogens, whereas for plant maladies organic specialists are antagonists. In organic cultivating, biological agents can be imported to areas where they do not naturally occur, or ranchers can make a supplemental discharge of characteristic enemies, boosting the naturally occurring population.

4)      Chemical control

Organic standards are outlined to permit the utilization of naturally occurring substances such as pyrethrin and rotenone. Ranchers dodge the utilize of broad-spectrum engineered pesticides, which extremely disturb natural control and promote the event of auxiliary bugs such as insect vermin, brown planthoppers, and Rhizoctonia. There are also few engineered substances permitted in natural cultivating, such as settled coppers (copper hydroxide, copper oxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulfate), hydrated lime, hydrogen peroxide, lime sulfur, and potassium bicarbonate.

Biological Control Agents

Normal foes of plant creepy-crawly pests and infections are known as biological control agents. They incorporate predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. A predator is an organism that eats another life form (creature, plant, parasites, or dead natural matter) whereas parasitoids are most of their life connected to or within a have organism with which they have a relationship. It is comparable to parasitism but they eventually sterilize, kill or in some cases consume their hosts.

Major Characteristics of Creepy crawly Parasitoids:

1)      They are specialized in their choice of host

2)      They are littler than their host

3)      Only the female looks for the host

4)      Different parasitoid species can attack diverse life stages of host

5)      Eggs or hatchlings are usually laid in, on, or close to the host Immatures stay on or within the host; grown-ups are free-living, versatile, and may be predaceous

6)      Immatures nearly always kill the host.

Pest Management Strategies

1)      Importation

Classic biological pest management in natural cultivating presents pest’s natural foes to the areas where they don’t occur naturally. This procedure requires organic control operators with the colonizing capacity and transient persistence in order to preserve its populace and quickly exploit a bug populace.

2)      Augmentation

It includes the supplemental discharge of natural enemies, boosting the naturally occurring populace. It can incorporate a little or huge discharge of the control specialists, depending on the pest administration needs.  To keep bugs at a low level, to avoid a serious attack, little discharge controlling agents are adequate. However, for a fast reduction (adjustment) of the damaging bug populace, a large number of control agents is required. Augmentation can be viable, but isn’t ensured to work, and it depends on the understanding of the circumstance.

3)      Conservation

This includes the preservation of existing natural foes within the environment as of now adjusted to the territory and the target bug. Conservation bug management is ordinarily basic and cost-effective. To favor normal foes, cropping systems can be altered to supply a reasonable living space. Shelterbelt, hedgerow, or insect banks give a shield where beneficial creepy crawlies can live and replicate. This empowers agriculturists to guarantee the survival of populations.

Bottom Line

Designing great crop revolution and adopting other pest management strategies are greatly critical management devices in organic cultivating. They can hinder bug life cycles, smother weeds, give and reuse richness, and progress soil structure and tilth.

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