“Various Types of Irrigation Techniques Used in India”
Agribusiness is the nerve of any nation because it is required for the survival of living creatures. For growing crops, the water system is a major process. Irrigation is defined as the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is the substitute or supplement of water with another source of water. It is utilized in dry areas and amid periods of inadequate precipitation. It is considered an essential infrastructure and imperative input required for agrarian production. The major point of irrigation systems is to assist out in the growth of agrarian crops and vegetation by maintaining with the least amount of water required, maintenance of landscapes, and re-vegetation of disturbed soils. Water systems are moreover utilized for dust repression, evacuation of sewage, and mining.
Irrigation has been an imperative characteristic of horticulture for over centuries and the result of the work of numerous cultures and was the basis of the wealth and society extending from Asia to the American Southwest.
Irrigation has many applications:-
- Protecting plants against frost
- Suppressing weed growth in grain fields
- Preventing soil consolidation
- For dust suppression, Disposal of sewage, and mining.
Different Types of Irrigation Methods
- Sprinkler Irrigation
The sprinkler water system is a method of applying water to the land in a way that imitates natural precipitation. Water is distributed through a system of channels, usually by pumping, and is then splashed into the air through sprinklers that break up the water into little drops that consistently drop to the ground.
Benefits of Sprinkler Irrigation
- It is suitable for varied sizes of land whether large plots or small plots.
- Way better able to direct water stream to particular zones of property, dodging water loss.
- Ability to manage fertilizers and chemical medicines through the system for even application.
- Drip Irrigation
Also known as the trickle water system, the drip water system strategy permits water to dribble gradually to the roots of plants through narrow tubes prepared with emitters. This method permits water to be delivered specifically to the base of the plant. Drip water system preserves water and efficiently irrigates non-turf areas such as flowerbeds, ground cover, road medians, vegetable and perennial gardens, and hanging baskets.
Benefits of Drip Irrigation
- Saves time, cash, labor, and water because the system is so efficient.
- Prevents contagious illness by minimizing water contact with the leaves, stems, and natural products of plants.
- Discourages weed development because water is only conveyed where it’s needed
- Increases viability on uneven ground.
Subsurface Water System
The subsurface water system is comparative to the drip/trickle method in that it distributes water through tubes and emitters. But as you can likely figure by the title, the tubes are buried below the surface of the ground. Developed in the 1960s in Israel, where water tends to be rare, this system works best for regions that are bone-dry, hot, blustery, or have sandy soil types.
Benefits of Subsurface Water System
- Saves water by disposing of surface water evaporation in hot and parched conditions.
- Reduces the number of weeds since water isn’t on the soil surface where most weed seeds germinate.
- Prevents damage from creatures or machinery since the system is underneath the ground
One of the foremost common and oldest methods of water systems is the surface water system. This strategy uses the drive of gravity to disseminate the water, which then seeps into the soil. It’s moreover known as a floodwater system since it basically permits water to stream into an area. This method isn’t as proficient as other options since there’s a propensity to utilize too much water to saturate the land.
Benefits of Surface Irrigation
- Requires less manual labor than hose spraying or moving hose sprinklers.
- Better able to cover a huge plot of land in a shorter amount of time.
- Not as adversely impacted by winds or silt as other systems.
Irrigation is a procedure of providing water to the dry land as supplementation of rainwater. It is primarily aimed at cultivating. There are various types of systems of water system hones in several parts of India. Irrigation in India is carried on through wells, tanks, canals, perpetual canal, multi-purpose river valley ventures. The water system engineer ought to be familiar with the sort of soil dampness, quality of irrigation water, recurrence of the water system for the correct usage of irrigation framework.