“Cotton Cultivation- Soil Texture and its Types”
Cotton is one of the foremost important fiber and cash crops of India as well as of the whole world. It plays an overwhelming part in the mechanical and agricultural economy of the nation. It gives the fundamental crude material to the cotton textile industry. In India, it gives direct jobs to 6 million agriculturists and about 40-50 million people are employed in cotton exchange and its processing. Cotton may be a water parched crop and around 6% of the water for irrigation is utilized for its cultivation. In India, it is developed on an expansive scale in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. Gujarat is the largest maker of cotton taken after by Maharashtra and Punjab. It is a crucial Kharif crop of Punjab. The normal lint yield of the State is around 697 kg per hectare.
It can be grown on all sorts of soil having pH ranges in-between 6 and 8. Profound, friable, well depleted, and rich soil are great for crop cultivation. Sandy, saline, or waterlogged soils are not appropriate for cotton development. The profundity of soil ought to not be less than 20-25 cm.
Preparation of Land
It required careful land preparation for great germination and growth of crops. After removal of Rabi crop, inundate field quickly then take furrowing of land with MB furrow and planking. Carry out profound furrowing once in three years, it’ll help to keep a check on perpetual weeds also kill different soil-borne bugs and illnesses.
Types of Cotton
- Long Staple Cotton
It has the longest fibre whose length shifts from 24 to 27 mm. The fibre is long, fine, and sparkling. It is utilized for making fine and prevalent quality cloth. Clearly, it gets the finest price. There have been quick advances within the production of long-staple cotton since Independence. About half of the overall cotton delivered in India may be a long staple. It is largely grown in Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh.
- Medium Staple Cotton
The length of its fiber is between 20 mm and 24 mm. Approximately 44 percent of the overall cotton generation in India is of a medium staple. Rajasthan, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra are its fundamental producers.
- Short Staple Cotton
This can be second rate cotton with fiber less than 20 mm long. It is utilized for fabricating inferior cloth and brings less price. Approximately 6 percent of the entire generation is of short-staple cotton. U.P., Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab are its primary producers.
India has the biggest area beneath cotton development in the world in spite of the fact that it is the world’s third-biggest producer of cotton after China and the USA. Currently, it is developed over 6 percent of the net sown region.
Before sowing, the soil ought to be flooded and after waps, condition sowing should be done. Little shallow holes ought to be arranged in the middle of the edge up to 2-3 inch deep and applied recommended fertilizers and 1.0-1.5 grams of themes and cover it with the soil. On each slope 3-4 cotton seeds ought to be dibble and cover totally with the soil and apply water system promptly. In North and Central India watered crop is sown from March-May and rainfed crop in June-July with the arrival of the monsoon. In South India, the major portion of the watered and rainfed crop is planted in September-October, whereas the sowing of the rainfed crops extended up to November. In Karnataka, desi cotton is ordinarily sown in August-September.
Picking of bolls should be done when bolls are completely developed. Avoid picking of damp bolls, choose cotton free from dry leaves waste. Damaged boll ought to be picked independently and disposed of for seed purposes. The primary and final picking are more often than not of low quality and ought to not be blended with the rest of the produce to bring the superior price. Chosen boll should be clean and dry to urge a great price. Do picking when there’s no dew. Picking ought to be frequently done after every 7-8 days to avoid misfortunes caused due to fall of the cotton on the ground. Delay in picking leads to the fall of cotton on the ground which results in weakening of quality. Harvest the American cotton at the interim of 15-20days and Desi cotton at 8-10 days interim. The picked kapas ought to be properly cleaned before taking to the market for sale.
After harvesting, Let the sheep, goats, and other creatures feed within the cotton field so that these creatures can eat bollworm-affected bolls and leaves. After final picking, remove the sticks in conjunction with roots. Bury remaining plant debris utilizing wrinkle turning plough as a sterile measure.
Challenge for growing Cotton
Maintaining dampness levels within the cotton field proves to be challenging. It seems to cultivate pest attacks and illnesses. Subsequently, a drip water system that maintains moisture levels is the most excellent arrangement here. Other than, cotton farming in India, which is dependent on the floodwater system, might confront challenges with blossoming, ball advancement, and ball opening. These factors require balanced sustenance, a 95% germination rate, etc. and this can be why cotton cultivation requires a precision water system.
Hence, cotton is the foremost widely used common fiber within the world, with more than 250 million individuals across the world depending on cotton development and processing for their livelihoods, counting millions of smallholder agriculturists and their families. Owing to a huge number of individuals employed within the cotton segment, it is one of the world’s most vital fibers and cash crops.