“Rice Cultivation- Rice the staple food of India”
What is Rice?
Rice is the most staple food in Asia, where approximately 90% of the world’s rice is produced and expended. It is subsequently broadly cultivated in India and other parts of Asia such as China, Japan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, etc. Universally, China is the leading maker of rice with India being the next. As per statistics, West Bengal is the leading rice maker in India taken after by Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra, Punjab, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Assam, and Haryana. Cultivating rice is undoubtedly difficult and it needs a lot of water. In this manner, rice cultivation is practiced in those places wherein the labor cost is less and precipitation is high.
Climate for Rice Cultivation
Rice could be a tropical climate crop that can develop from ocean level to an elevation of 3000 meters. Paddy cultivation can moreover be done in mild and sub-tropical climate beneath sticky conditions. A high temperature, mugginess, and adequate precipitation with water system facilities are the essential prerequisites of paddy development. It moreover needs shinning daylight with temperature extending between 20 and 40⁰C. It can endure temperature up to 42⁰C.
Soil for Cultivating Rice
Nearly every type of soil can be utilized for rice cultivation given the region has a high level of stickiness, adequate precipitation with irrigational facilities, and a high temperature. The major sorts of soils for rice development are dark soil, muddy soil (loamy and yellow), laterite soil, ruddy sandy, terai, slope, and medium to shallow dark soil. It can be indeed cultivated on sediments and rock. If the cultivating soil has rich natural matter and if it powders effectively on drying or forms a puddle when damp then it is considered to be perfect.
Bund cultivating system is followed in case of rice cultivation wherein the fields are overflowed continuously up to 7-10 days before harvesting. To deliver a kilogram of rice the crop on average needs around 1500 liters of water. In other words, rice needs a huge amount of water for development. This continuous flooding hone is followed to guarantee weed control and adequate water supply. Flooded soil too ensures:
- Better supplement availability
- Moisture stress elimination
- Micro-climate for favorable crop production
Nutritional Value of Rice
Rice could be nutritional staple nourishment which gives instant vitality as its most vital component is a carbohydrate (starch). On the other hand, rice is poor in nitrogenous substances with the normal composition of these substances being only 8 percent and fat substance or lipids only negligible, i.e., 1per cent and due to this reason, it is considered as complete nourishment for eating. Rice flour is rich in starch and is used for making different nourishment materials. It is additionally utilized on a few occasions by brewers to make alcoholic malt. Likewise, rice straw blended with other materials is utilized to produce porcelain, glass, and earthenware. Rice is additionally utilized in fabricating paper mash and animal bedding. The variability of composition and characteristics of rice is truly wide and depends on the variety and environmental conditions beneath which the crop is developed. In husked rice, protein substance ranges between 7per cent to 12per cent. The utilize of nitrogen fertilizers increments the percentage content of a few amino acids.
Medicinal Value of Rice
The immense diversity of rice germplasm may be a wealthy source for numerous rice-based items and is additionally utilized for treating numerous health-related illnesses such as acid reflux, diabetes, joint pain, loss of motion, epilepsy, and provide strength to pregnant and lactating moms. Antiquated Ayurvedic literature affirms the therapeutic and healing properties of distinctive sorts of rice developed in India. Therapeutic rice varieties like Kanthi Banko (Chhattisgarh), Meher, Saraiphul & Danwar (Orissa), Atikaya & Kari Bhatta (Karnataka), are exceptionally common in India.
Rice Cultivation Method
Most agriculturists practice nursery bed strategy. Nursery beds are made involving approximately 1/20th of the overall field area. The paddy seeds are sown within the bed. They are prepared inside 25 days of sowing in low land zones whereas in higher heights they take around 55 days to become prepared for transplantation.
There are four diverse practices of cultivation of rice, viz. transplantation strategy, drilling strategy, broadcast strategy, and Japanese strategy.
- Transplantation Method
Transplantation is the foremost commonly utilized strategy wherein seeds are first sown in nursery and the seedlings are transplanted to the main field once they appear 3-4 leaves. Although this is the finest yielding strategy, it requires heavy labor.
- Drilling Method
This method is elite to India. In this strategy, one individual furrow a gap within the land, and the other individual sows the seed. Ox is the foremost commonly utilized ‘animal’ to furrow the land.
- Broadcast Method
Broadcast strategy generally includes diffusing the seeds physically over a large zone or within the whole field. Labor included is exceptionally less and so is the accuracy. This strategy produces exceptionally less yield as compared to others.
- Japanese Method
Japanese strategy has been embraced for the high yielding variety of rice and those that require a high amount of fertilizers. Seeds are sown in nursery beds and after that transplanted to the main field. It has appeared tremendous victory for the high yielding varieties.
One of the basic variables in rice cultivation is in-time rice harvesting otherwise the grains would shed. The water system of the field is totally halted for about a week before harvesting. This dehydration process helps in grain maturing. It moreover hurries development. In the case of early and medium developing varieties, harvesting ought to be carried out 25- 30 days after blooming. The late-developing varieties are gathered 40 days after blossoming. They are generally harvested when the dampness substance is approximately 25%. Post harvesting, drying is carried out slowly beneath the shade.
If done logically and then Paddy cultivation may be a beneficial farming trade. To minimize farm labor mechanized strategies ought to be embraced from planting to the harvesting rice crop. Organic cultivating paddy is additionally getting popular and organic rice has the potential to bring more market cost.